Challenging Uses of Cases

There are several types of sentences that cause confusion about whether to use a subject or object pronoun: sentences with a compound subject or object; sentences with a pronoun followed directly by a noun; and sentences that use pronouns after than or as. After this lesson, you’ll be much more confident about which pronouns to use in these tricky situations.

Pronouns in Compounds

In sentences that use two pronouns or a noun and a pronoun together, it’s easy to become confused about which pronoun to use. If you’re not sure which one is correct, consider whether it’s part of the subject (doing the action) or part of the object (either receiving the action or after a preposition). Sometimes a pronoun may sound right to you, but you can’t always trust your ears. Be especially careful with I and me, which are two of the most common offenders.

Common Error #1: Using Object Pronouns in Place of Subject Pronouns

Error Correction
Steve and me went to the park. Steve and I went to the park.
Me and them buy chocolates. We buy chocolates.
Him and me broke a pencil yesterday. He and I broke a pencil yesterday.


Common Error #2: Using Subject Pronouns in Place of Object Pronouns

Error Correction
Bob is smarter than I Bob is smarter than me.
Our teacher had dinner with my friend and I. Our teacher had dinner with my friend and me.
All the work done by we. All the work done by us.


Pronouns Before Nouns

Sometimes for clarity or emphasis, writers use a pronoun and a noun together. People often use an object pronoun when they mean to use a subject pronoun, and vice versa.



The doctor provided service to we patients. The doctor provided service to us patients.
Us friends enjoy marriage party. We friends enjoy marriage party.

Pronouns After Than or As

When sentences use than or as to compare, it can be difficult to choose the correct pronoun.

Error Correction
Howard cooks better than me. Howard cooks better than I.
John likes Mary more than me. John likes Mary more than I.


Find out pronouns from the examples for exercise:

  • Mary wants to talk to you about your homework.
  • She is telling him a joke.
  • Where are Jill and Cherie? Didn’t you invite them?
  • We will give them extra cookies next week.
  • The spider bit me on my ankle.
  • Who do you give the money to?
  • The bread is stale. You can feed it to the birds.
  • I went to the movies.
  • The plate shattered when John dropped it on the floor.
  • I make cookies every Sunday for my co-workers.

Cases of pronoun. Definition, Examples and Exercises

The cases of pronouns tell you how they are being used in a sentence.

             Subject               Object            Possessive
      I We Me   Us My, mine Our, ours
    You You You You Your, yours Your, yours
He, She, It They Him, her, it Them His, her, hers, its Their, theirs

Subject Pronoun:-

Definition: A subject pronoun(also called a nominative pronoun) is used as the subject of a sentence or as a subject complement following a linking verb. (The subject of a sentence is the person doing the action in a sentence. A subject complement is a word that renames or gives more information about the subject. A linking verb, such as is or seems, connects the subject to the subject complement.)


Hint :- Subject pronoun as the subject of a sentences

A subject  pronoun that act as the subject of a sentence will make sense in the following test sentence:

  • I have a big chocolate bar.
  • You have some ice cream.
  • He has a cake.
  • We could have a party.
  • They could come, too.
  • Who should be invited?

Object Pronoun: –

Definition: An object pronoun (also called an objective pronoun) is used as a direct object, an indirect object, or the object of a preposition. Below are some examples of these concepts. To learn more, follow the links.

Hint:- The object pronoun will fit in the test sentence :

  • Give the chocolate to me, please?
  • Why should I give it to you?
  • You could give it to him, instead.
  • Please share it to all of us.
  • Do we have to share it with them?


Possessive Pronoun:-

Definition: possessive pronouns show ownership.

There are two sets of possessive pronouns. Myyourhisheritsouryour, and their are usually classified as possessive pronouns, but they are more accurately described as possessive adjectives because they always modify nouns.

Hint:- Note that there are no apostrophes in the possessive pronoun. They are born showing ownership, so it’s not necessary to add ‘s to show ownership Remember that it’s is the possessive pronoun.

  • That’s my shirt.
  • That shirt is mine.
  • The house is mine.
  • It’s their house.
  • The dog is scratching its ear.

Find out pronoun from the examples for exercise

    • Are you and they attending the meeting.
    • No one is more concerned about the matter than she.
    • Whom can I go out with tonight.
    • Margaret and I hope to be room mates.
    • The committee told smith and them to write a new resolution.
    • Is he the one for whom the note is intended?
    • We discovered that it was they who started the fire.
    • Everyone asked Joan and him to speak at the convention.
    • A person as young as she should not be given too much responsibility.
    • Five of us took a cab to the play.



Personal Pronoun. Definition, Examples and Exercise


Definition: The prefix pro means for or in place of. Pronouns stand in for or replace nouns. This lesson is about personal pronouns, which replace nouns that refer to people or things.

Personal pronouns have:

  • Number: They are singular or plural.
  • Person: 1st person is the person speaking, 2nd person is the person being spoken to, and 3rd person is the person being spoken about. You can look at the chart below for examples.
  • Case: Determines how a pronoun is being used in a sentence (subject, object, or possessive). We’ll go over this more in the next lesson.

Personal Pronouns










Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person I we me us my, mine our, ours
2nd Person  you you you you your, yours your, yours
3rd Person he, she, it they him, her, it them his, her, hers, its their, theirs


Directions: Find out Personal Pronouns from examples for exercise:

  • I would like some water.
  • Marie, did you forget something?
  • Kevin said he would share his cake with me.
  • The dog acts like it is hungry.
  • My parents said they need a night out.
  • I am friends with him.
  • Pam gave the cookies to her.
  • She is my little sister.
  • Don’t be rude to us.

Classifying Noun


You have now learned about abstract vs. concrete, common vs. proper, and singular vs. plural nouns, as well as compound, collective, and possessive nouns. Most nouns fit into more than one category. This lesson is a review of everything you have learned.


Find out types of noun from the example-

Abstract: I want to see justice served.

Concrete: I painted the picket fence white.

Common:  You broke my favourite mug.

Proper: I really love art by Van Gogh.

Singular: Joey told me a funny story.

Plural: Jenna will come to the movies with us.

Compound: We put a scarecrow in the garden to chase birds away.

Collective: A large group went swimming at the lake.

Possessive: The dog is the Smith’s.



Possessive Nouns. Definition, Examples and Exercise

Definition: Possessive nouns show ownership. Possessive comes from the same root as possession, something you own.

Singular Possessives

Add ‘s to singular words to show possession.

t-shirt’s logo             moon’s brightness                class’s income

(t-shirt + ‘s)              (moon + ‘s)                      (class + ‘s)

If a singular word ends in s, it is still necessary to add ‘s.

Book’s cover              Goddess’s beauty                 Victor’s spoils

(book + ‘s)                              (Goddess + ‘s)                       (Victor + ‘s)

Plural Possessives

If you have added an s to make a word plural (for example, cat ⇒ cats), adding ‘s will sound ridiculous (cat’s). In that case, add only the apostrophe to the end of the word.

Eggs’ colour                            Frogs’ croaking                    Owls’ eyes

(eggs + ‘)                               (frogs + ‘)                              (owls + ‘)

Just like singular possessives, plural possessives that don’t end in s add ‘s.

Die’s roll                                 Feet’s toenails                       Lice’s size

(die + ‘s)                                 (feet + ‘s)                                (lice + ‘s)

Hint:  Look at the ending in front of the apostrophe to see if the word is singular or plural.

One dog’s tail (One dog has one tail.)
Two dogs|’ tails (Two dogs have two tails.)

Find Out Possessive Nouns From examples For exercise:


  • Rogar and Susan’s backpacks are in the car.
  • The gerbil’s cage needed cleaning.
  • The girl’s toys were lined up neatly on the shelf.
  • The dog’s bowls are filled with hotdogs.
  • The car’s bumpers were locked in the traffic jam.
  • Jennifer’s new handbag matches her shoes perfectly.
  • The cat’s fur is a matted mess.
  • The cat’s bowl is filled with cheeseburgers.
  • The doctor’s white coat was hanging in his office.
  • Carol and John’s new car is the latest model.


Collective Nouns. Definition, Examples and Exercise

Definition: Collective comes from the same root as collection. A collective noun names a group, which is like a collection of people or things.


Flock, crowd, choir, team

Hint: Put the word in this test sentence to see if it works:

A flock of birds.

A crowd of people.

A choir of singers.

A team of horses.


Find out collective noun from the examples for exercise:

  • A large crowd stood on the platform.
  • On Thursday the army marched six miles.
  • The club hold a meeting at my house.
  • Our family owns a house in the country.
  • A herd of sheep grazed on the hillside.
  • The orchestra tuned up before the concert.
  • Mr. Ferguson spoke to our class.
  • Gretchen is the president of our committee.
  • The navy sailed three ships into the harbour.
  • A large group went swimming at the lake.

Compound Noun. Definition, Examples and Exercises

Definition : compound noun is a noun made up of two or more words. Each word makes up part of the meaning of the noun.


Compound nouns can be written three ways:

A single word                 Two word                   Hyphenated

Table                               Printer cartridge          Train – spotting

Rainfall                           swimming pool            Dry – cleaning


Hint : A compound noun is the sum of its two parts. However, there are some words that aren’t compound nouns even though they can be broken up into two words. One example is a compound adjective.

A half – eaten pie

( Half – eaten describes the pie, so it is an adjective, not a noun)


Find out compound nouns from the examples for exercise:

  • We booked our holiday through a travel agent.
  • I am sorry I am late. There was a terrible traffic jam on the motorway.
  • Humphrey Bogart was a famous film star in the 1940s and 50s.
  • The traffic lights were red but he still did not stop.
  • When I got to the dentist, I had to sit in the waiting room for 40 minutes.
  • Mary wanted to go out, but she could not find a babysitter for the children.
  • I forgot my book bag at home.
  • My little sister plays in the sandbox a lot.
  • It is very important to always eat breakfast.
  • We put the books on the big yellow bookshelf.







Irregular Plural Nouns. Definition, examples and Exercise.

Irregular nouns form plurals in unusual ways. Dictionaries will give you the plural spelling if it is irregular.

One person   =>   two people

One goose   =>   two geese

One louse   =>   two lice

One mouse   =>   two lice

Some nouns are spelled the same way whether they are singular or plural.

One cod   =>   two cod

One quail   =>   two quail

One fish   =>   two fish

Nouns with Latin and Greek origins form plurals in strange ways. Because Latin and Greek plural endings are so unusual, many people try to follow the English rules by adding s or es. Applying the English rules is acceptable for some nouns, but using the original spelling is usually better. You will notice in the chart below that nouns with the same endings form plurals in the same way every time. Impress your friends and family by knowing the correct forms.

-a => -ae us => -i -is => -es -on -a and -ie -ce
Alga => algae Radius => radii Basis => bases Zoon => zoa
Larva => larvae Stimulus => stimuli Thesis => theses Automaton => automata
Nebula => nebulae Syllabus => syllabi Ellipsis => ellipsis Polyherdon => polyherda
Focus => foci Oasis => oases Ortacerdon => ortahedra
Synthesis => syntheses


Some nouns exist only in the plural form.

Customs                     Earnings

Fireworks                   Goods

Funds                          Guts

Manners                     Wages

Drawers                      Odds

Note: This is not a complete list.

Hint: Many people think that you have to use an apostrophe + s when making years plural, but most style guides actually suggest that you leave out the apostrophe.

The Industrial Revolution took place between the late 1700s and early 1800s. I was born in the ’90s. (Notice how the apostrophe in ’90s comes before the number. That’s because the apostrophe is being used to replace the 19 in 1990s. It has nothing to do with whether the number is plural or not.)

Find out irregular plural nouns from example for exercise.

  • The boys were throwing baseballs back and forth between bases.
  • Our horses are much happier wearing lightweight English sadless.
  • There are mice in the kitchen.
  • The women in my reading club are very good friends of mine.
  • When I arrived home I had to change my clothes.
  • Yesterday at the mall I bought a pair of pants.
  • The fish we ordered was delicious.
  • The men in the room are making me nervous.
  • I broke my foot riding bicycle.
  • My children are in the school.



Singular and Plural Nouns Rules Words Examples

Definition: Singular means only one. Plural means more than one.

In order to make a noun plural, it is usually only necessary to add s. However, there are many irregular nouns that add es. The rules for spelling plural nouns are based on the letters at the end of the word. The chart below breaks up the rules into categories so that they are easier to remember.


Rule Examples
Most nouns Add s to form the plural. Dog   =>    dogs

Boat   =>     boats

House =>    houses




Nouns that end in s, sh, x, ch, or z Add es to form the plural. For words that end in z, add an extra z before the es.


It is too hard to pronounce the words without the e. Try it – wish, pitch, box… You sound like a snake!

Wish    =>     wishes

Pitch    =>      pitches

Box     =>      boxes

Crisis   =>       crises

Quiz    =>       quizzes

Nouns ending in f or fe



Some nouns ending in f or fe just add s. Sometimes it is necessary to change the f to a v. In that case, always end the word with es.


Leaf    =>        leaves

Hoof    =>        hooves

Half     =>        halves

Wolf    =>         wolves



Find out Singular and proper Noun from example for exercise

Singular Noun

  • The boy had a baseball in his hand.
  • You stole my idea and did not give me any credit.
  • Your mom is going to be upset about that broken lamp.
  • It’s not difficult to grow a tree as long as you give it plenty of water.
  • The cat never seems to tire of jumping in and out of the box.

Plural noun

  • Our horses are much happier wearing light weight English sadless.
  • You stole my ideas and did not give me any credit.
  • Our moms are going to be upset that we stayed out all night going to parties.
  • It’s not too difficult to grow trees as long as you provide them with plenty of water.
  • I can’t believe you allow your dogs to climb all over the seats while you are driving.

In this lesson you will learn the rest of the rules for spelling plural nouns.


  Rule Examples
Nouns that end in vowel + y  Add s to form the plural.  Key     =>       keysJersey  =>       jerseys
Nouns that end in vowel + o  Add s to form the plural.  Video     =>        VideosZoo        =>         zoos
Nouns that end in consonant + y  Change the y to i and add es to form the plural.  Jelly      =>        JelliesStory     =>         stories
Nouns that end in consonant + o  Easy rule:
Usually add es except for musical terms.Complicated rule:
Some nouns that end in consonant + oadd es. Many can be spelled either way. Look in the dictionary if you want to be sure.These nouns always add es: potato, tomato, hero, echo, banjo, embargo, veto, torpedo.

·        Here are the preferred spellings of some plural nouns: buffaloes, dominoes, mosquitoes, volcanoes, tornadoes, ghettos, mangos, mottos, cargos, halos, mementos.


Regular Examples-Tomato   =>    tomatoes

Hero       =>     heroes

Potato     =>    potatoes

Tornado  =>   tornadoes

Find out singular and plural noun from some examples for exercise

  • I helped my dad wash the car this morning.
  • There were two boats on the lack at sunset.
  • I found seven eggs in the chicken coop.
  • I checked out some books from the library.
  • There were two cats playing in the yard last night.
  • There are few buses on the road today.
  • I put two big potatoes in the lunch box.
  • I saw a mouse running by
  • A few men wear watches.
  • Babies play with bottles as toys.

Common and Proper Noun? Definition, Examples and Exercise


Definition: Common nouns name any person, place, thing, or idea. They are not capitalized unless they come at the beginning of a sentence. Proper nouns are the names of specific people, places, things, or ideas. Proper nouns should always be capitalized.


Common                    Proper
man                =>         Victor Hugo
mountain       =>          Mount Kilimanjaro
ocean             =>           Atlantic Ocean
country          =>           United States
state               =>            Minnesota
cat                 =>             Buttons


Don’t forget to capitalize all parts of proper nouns. Many people forget to capitalize words like river and county in proper nouns like Yellow River and Orange Country.


Find out Proper and Common Noun from example for exercise

Proper Noun


  • The boy threw the ball to his dog, Wilson.
  • We went to smith’s furniture and bought a new couch to replace our old one.
  • My best friend moved to Israel to study.
  • My second grade teacher was Mrs. Gilbert, an old battle-axe.
  • When the titanic sank, the captain went down with the ship.



Common Noun

  • I really want a new pair of jeans.
  • I wish I could remember the name of that painter.
  • They are all waiting for us at the restaurant.
  • Let’s go to watch a live game at the stadium.
  • I really want to live in a big city Some day.
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