Active V/s Passive Voice. Defination, Examples And Exercise

Definition: If you are active, you are doing something. In a sentence written in active voice, the subject of the sentence is doing the verb.

Harry ate six shrimp at dinner.

We are going to watch a movie tonight.


Definition: If you are passive, something is done to you. In a sentence written in passive voice, the subject of the sentence is having the action of the verb done to it by something else.

At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by harry.

A movie going to be watched by us tonight.


  • When you write sentences with active voice, you can use more interesting verbs and your writing seems to move more quickly.

I ran the obstacle course in record time.


  • When you write sentences with passive voice, you end up using more helping verbs, but it can be effective if you want to slow down the action of your writing and focus on a scene.                                                                                    The obstacle course was run by me in record time.

Find out active and passive voice from the examples for exercise:

1. Some people raise sugar cane in Hawaii.(active)

Sugar cane is raised by some people in Hawaii. (passive)

2. The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch. (active)

The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch. (passive)

3. The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow. (active)

The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow. (passive)

4. The director will give you instructions. (active)

Instructions will be given to you by the director. (passive)

5. Alex posted the video on Facebook. (active)

The video was posted on Facebook by Alex. (passive)

6. Who ate the last cookie? (active)

The last cookie was eaten by whom? (passive)

 7. The science class viewed the comet. (active)

The comet was viewed by the science class. (passive)

8. Susan will bake two dozen cupcakes for the bake sale. (active)

For the bake sale, two dozen cookies will be baked by Susan. (passive)

9. The wedding planner is making all the reservations. (active)

All the reservation will be made by the wedding planner. (passive)

10. The two kings are signing the treaty. (active)

The treaty is being signed by the two kings. (passive)




Idiomatic Verbs. Definition, Examples and Exercise

Definition: Idiomatic verbs are idioms. Idioms don’t mean what they seem to say. If understood literally, idioms often don’t make sense. We understand idioms because we use them all the time. Idioms in any language are challenging for people learning that language.

Idiomatic verbs are also called phrasal verbs since it takes a phrase to make the meaning complete. They are made up of a verb and a preposition.


  • Ella tore up the letter after she read it.
  •   Their car broke down two miles out of town.
  •   Did the manager deal with that customer’s complaint.


Hint :-  Prepositions usually have objects when they are part of a prepositional phrase. If the preposition does not have an object and is not an adverb, it might be part of an idiomatic verb.

Even though their meaning is not literal, we understand idiomatic verbs because we use them frequently. When using idiomatic verbs, many new English speakers often make mistakes.


When writing idiomatic verbs, writers run into trouble when they put words between parts of an idiomatic verb. Other times, writers try to give intransitive idiomatic verbs direct objects

Transitive : Some idiomatic verbs are transitive and can be separated by a noun or pronoun.

  • The choir sang carols.
  • She left London on June 6.


Intransitive: Some are intransitive; they do not take a direct object.

  • Pete always sings in the bath.
  • I want to leave early.


     Find out Idiomatic verbs from the examples for exercise

  •    Be sure to put on a life jacket before getting into the boat.
  •   We left out the trash for pickup.
  •        It’s time to get on the plane.
  •       What will she think up next?
  •      I’m having some trouble working out the solution to this equation.
  •       We’re going to have to put off our vacation until next year.
  •         Stand up when speaking in class, please.
  •        We’ll Have to wake up early if we want breakfast.
  • ·      Take off your shoes before you walk on the carpet.
  • ·      My dog likes to break out of his kennel to chase squirrels.

Shifts in verb tense.Definition and Example

Definition: A shift in verb tense is when the writer changes from one tense to another. Sometimes it is done on purpose, but some writers accidentally switch back and forth. Accidental shifting usually happens when a writer begins writing as if he or she is watching the story. It is usually told in past tense. Then as the writer gets absorbed in the story and feels like he or she is experiencing the story, the tense switches to present tense. When the writer gets distracted, the tense switches back to past tense.

Note:- If you include dialogue, the quotations will usually be in a different tense (usually present tense) from the narration.

 Examples of shift in verb tense

Once there was a little kid who went on a / an numerous hike through a/an Juicy forest in the middle of Afica. At first he had fun watching the cute little light brown go jumping through the trees and talking to the Giraffe that dodged between name was Nemo realized he was lost, and he got very frightened. His Giraffe began to chatter and he wished he were home with daddy band Nemo. Suddenly he noted that the huge trees began to look like desert, and they seemed.


Tenses of Verbs. Definition, Types and Examples

Definition: Tenses tell us when an action happened.

Simple Tenses:

Simple Tenses

Past Present Future




 Will walk

Will eat


Simple tenses use the past form, the present form, and the present form with the helping verb will.

  • Last Sunday, I watched a movie.
  • Today I watch movie and my sister watches
  • Next Sunday, I will watch

Perfect tenses show when an action happened in relation to another action. The action in the past perfect began and ended before the event or time it is being related to. The action in the present perfect began in the past and continues up to the present or has ended by the present. The action in the future tense will be finished a particular point in the future.

Perfect Tenses

Past Perfect Present Perfect Future Perfect
Had walked

Had eaten

Have walked

Have eaten

Will have walked

Will have eaten

The perfect tenses use the helping verb to have (have/has, had) with the past participle of the verb. The verb to have changes to show the tense.

  • I have put the money in the machine.
  • I had finished my homework before mom called me for dinner.
  • By the time the show is over, Marie will have danced for 40 minutes.

Progressive tenses show that an action is or was ongoing or continuing at the same time as something else. The present progressive tense is used to talk about something that is happening right now.


Progressive Tenses

Past Progressive Present Progressive Future Progressive
was walking
was eating
am walking
am eating
will be walking
will be eating
  • Last week we were painting the house.
  • She is having a lot of trouble with her divorce.
  • We will be working quite closely.

Perfect progressive tenses are a combination of perfect (completed before) and progressive (ongoing) tenses which show that something began, continued, and ended before another action mentioned.

Perfect Progressive Tenses

Past Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive
had been walking
had been eating
have been walking
have been eating
will have been walking
will have been eating


  • He had been partying all night, so he fell asleep in class.
  • She has been working there since July.
  • He will have been driving for an hour by the time he gets more.

Not a tense, but logically included in this section is the emphatic form. The emphatic form emphasizes that an action happened. It is also used in questions and in negative statements.


Emphatic Form


Past Emphatic

Present Emphatic


did walk
did eat
do/does walk
do/does eat
There is no future emphatic because
you can’t emphasize something that
hasn’t been done yet.

The emphatic form uses the verb to do with the present form of the verb.

Find out tenses from the examples for exercise:

  • In November, we will have been living in Spain for eleven years.
  • Tony will tired when he gets here because he will have been exercising for four hours.
  • They play basketball every Sunday.
  • The snow will have stopped by April.
  • He was sleeping all night long.
  • Last week we were painting the house.
  • It will be raining the entire week.
  • When we arrive at their house tonight, they will be waiting.
  • The robbers will have taken all the money by the time anyone arrives.
  • Her heel will have fully healed by the summer.


Irregular Verbs. Definition,Examples and Exercise

Irregular Verbs


Irregular verbs are verbs that do not form the past and participle by adding -ed. All irregular verbs form the present participle by adding -ing. Irregular verbs may change vowels, consonants, both vowels and consonants, or may stay the same.

Infinitive Present Present Participle Past Past Participle
To see See, sees seeing Saw Have seen
To fly Fly, flies flying Flew Have flown
To do Do, does running Did Have done


The verb to be is the most irregular verb in English.

Infinitive Present Present Participle Past Past Participle
to be am / are / is being was / were been


Irregular verbs can be sorted into groups by pattern, but the patterns don’t help you remember the forms. For the most part, these need to be memorized. Most people memorize them simply by hearing them, reading them, or being corrected.

The patterns are:

  1. present, past, and past participle are the same. (put/put/put)
  2. past and past participle are the same (catch/caught/caught)
  3. past + n or en forms past participle (freeze/froze/frozen)
  4. present + n/en/ne forms past participle (do/did/done)
  5. final vowel changes from i in present to a in past to u in past participle. (begin/began/begun)



If you aren’t sure, look up the verb in the dictionary. If the verb is irregular, the dictionary will give you the past and past participle form.


Find out irregular verbs from the examples for exercise: –

  • My dog jumped out of the swimming pool and shook himself, causing water to spray everywhere.
  • You should have seen Trish’s face when she got her surprise.
  • We spent the whole day lounging on the beach.
  • Let’s take a hike on Saturday.
  • My brother mike left his stinky socks on the coffee table.
  • This is the ninth time that pitcher has thrown a four ball.
  • The water balloon burst when it hit its target.
  • Jesse intentionally stuck gum in Jeff’s hair.



Principal Parts of Verb

Definition:  In English there are four principal parts, or forms, of a verb.

If you study foreign languages, many languages have six forms of each verb for each tense. That’s a lot of memorizing. English uses helping verbs and the four principal parts to show the tenses.

base/present present participle Past past participle
Walk(s) Walking Walked Walked
Dance(s) Dancing Danced Danced
Study(s) Studying Studied Studied

Regular Verbs:

  • Base/Present– same as infinitive without to. Add -s to form third person singular.
  • Present Participle– add – ing.
  • Past– add -ed
  • Past Participle– add -ed

Note: Participles function as part of a verb phrase. They can’t be used as verbs by themselves. They must have a helping verb in order to make sense.

Terry is writing an e-mail to a client at the moment.

Dad has been working hard all day.

When adding endings to verbs, you sometimes have to change the spelling.

Do change:

  • Single syllable verbs generally double the consonant when adding-ing and -ed.

shop + s = shops, shop + ing = shopping, shop + ed = shopped

Verbs that end with a single vowel and a consonant that stress the end of the word usually double the consonant before adding -ingand -ed.

  • refer + s = refers, refer + ing = referring, refer + ed = referred
  • To add-s or -ed to verbs that end in consonant y, change y to i before adding the ending. To add -ing, don’t change the y.

carry + s = carries, carry + ing = carrying, carry + ed = carried

  • To add-ed or -ing to verbs that end in silent e, drop the e before adding -ed or -ing.

amaze + s = amazes, amaze + ing = amazing, amaze + ed = amazed

  • Verbs that end in a vowel followed by anl usually double the l before adding -ed or -ing in British English, but usually don’t in American English.

American: travel + s = travels, travel + ing = traveling, travel + -ed = traveled.
British: travel + s = travels, travel + ing = travelling, travel + -ed = travelled

  • Verbs that end inc usually add k before adding endings.

frolic + s = frolics, frolic + ing = frolicking, frolic + ed = frolicked

Don’t change:

  • If the verb ends with a single vowel before a consonant, but the last syllable is not stressed, don’t double the consonant.

wander + s = wanders, wander + ing = wandering, wander + ed = wandered

  • Verbs with a double vowel before a consonant do not double the consonant.

retreat + s = retreats, retreat + ing = retreating, retreat + ed = retreated

Find out Principal part of verbs from the examples for exercise:

  • The students are studying grammar.
  • He has run a five minute mile.
  • Bedell is reading a good book.
  • The students have studied grammar.
  • Last week they drew two maps.
  • Perhaps she will draw one for you.
  • She has often drawn cartoons.
  • They had always gone to a different museum before.
  • Today the students are watching a movie about Reservation.
  • They have learned about Renaissance painting.






The Verb To Be. Defination, Examples And Exercise

The verb to be can be used as 3 different types of verbs.



Bob is ill.



My friends were late.



I am the first student to graduate from my family.


Hint: if to be is followed by when or where (an adverb), it is a state-of-being (a type of action) verb.


Find out the verb to be from the examples for exercise:

  1. The little boy has been naughty.
  2. She has been rude, but now she apologizes.
  3. They have been tricked.
  4. The house will be cleaned.
  5. The light was turned on.
  6. Cars are bought.
  7. I am trying to get some sleep.
  8. Justin and Ethan are watching a movie.
  9. The students were excited to be at school.
  10. We were happy to have our friends over last week.



Action V/s. Linking Verb

Definition: The verbs appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound,  stay, taste, and turn can act either as linking verbs or action verbs. You have to understand the relationships in the sentence.


            He accepted my apology.


The child will be tall five years from now.

Find out Linking and Action verb from the example for exercise:

  • The ghost appeared in the doorway.
  • Bill became the president of the student council.
  • The tree grows every day.
  • John felt sick after lunch.
  • Mom tasted the soup.
  • The cloth on the table felt soft and fuzzy.
  • Roberto placed the ball into the corner of the goal.
  • Georgia is a state just above Florida.
  • Before leaving for school, Andrea helped her mother pack their lunches.
  • Those cars are the most expensive ones on the lot.



Linking Verbs. Defination, Examples And Exrecise

Definition: Unlike action verbs, linking verbs show a relationship between the subject of the sentence and a noun or adjective being linked to it.


I am putty in his hand.

Dream come true when we believe in them.


  • The most common linking verbs are forms of the verb to be: am, is, are, was, were, being, been.
  • Other common linking verbs include: appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, and turn.

Your plans for the wedding sound nice.

You look exhausted after studying all night.

To check if these are being used as linking verbs, try replacing them with the correct form of to be. If they make sense and have almost the same meaning, they are linking verbs.

  • Anthony has been a dream the last few weeks.
  • Building the house proves difficult for them.

Find out linking verbs from the examples for exercise:

  1. William is excited about his promotion.
  2. She appears upset about the announcement.
  3. He went red after tripping on the rug.
  4. Tom acted nervous when the teacher found the note.
  5. The crowd stayed calm in spite of the imminent threat.
  6. Bob felt sleepy after eating the whole pizza.
  7. The cinnamon rolls taste heavenly.
  8. All the children seem satisfied with the bouncy castle.
  9. All the kittens were playful.
  10. Your friend might be disappointed if you don’t go.



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